HLA Test: What does it mean?
A genetic test termed HLA typing test is used to identify unique variations in a person’s immune system. This test determines who may safely give bone marrow or organs to patients needing transplants. Human Leukocyte Antigen is called HLA, even though that is its full name. HLA typing is also referred to as HLA matching.
HLA typing is a next-generation sequencing-based test to determine the best donor for allogeneic bone marrow and organ transplants. In bone marrow-organ transplantation, the recipient rejects the donation due to the donor’s HLA, which the recipient recognizes as an intruder. The careful identification of a compatible donor and recipient is important for the outcome of the transplant.
A specific protein called HLA-B27 is located on the exterior of the cells. The HLA-B27 test can determine whether or not a person’s white blood cells are coated with the HLA-B27 protein. The HLA typing test is quite an expensive test.
Who needs the HLA test?
- The immune system of the recipient can get confused. It can be rejected by assuming the donor’s bone marrow as a foreign body during a bone marrow transplant. You are more likely to be rejected if the mismatch is present.
- The HLA gene chain controls protein making, which can lead to rejection.
- As a result, the immunological signatures of potential donors and recipients should be matched.
What does the HLA test measure?
The HLA typing test determines the suitable match for a tissue transplant. Both potential tissue recipients and those who want to donate tissue must have the same type. Family members of someone in need of a transplant may fall under this category.
HLA typing can also be performed on patients who are towards the end of their lives. People who have recently died can also become organ donors.
Is Blood Typing and HLA Typing the Same Thing?
Since a person’s cells contain far more HLA markers than blood types, HLA is much more different. Only the first eight kinds of blood exist. Depending on their kind, many people can safely receive many blood types.
You are not required to be an HLA match to obtain just blood from a person since HLA is absent from red blood cells.
The receiver should match the donor’s blood type to get a solid organ transplant. They require the best possible HLA match.
Patients cannot transfer or donate blood, platelets, or organs if their HLA locus match is 5/10. The patient must evaluate the results of the HLA testing to understand the facts. A condition in which the donor-to-patient matching ratio is 10/10 is said to be a perfect match.
Useful details: The 10/10 in HLA can only match real siblings who share genetic parents. Additionally, a child’s human leukocyte antigen ratio has a 50% probability of matching a parent’s.